Commodity futures markets plays an important role in price discovery, the information on which helps the producers to plan their activities on production, processing, storage and marketing of commodities. This study attempts to assess the futures and spot price linkages for pepper, guar seed and chana by using the Johansen Cointegration analysis and Vector Error Correction Model.

Soil infiltration and resistance to flow offered by soil and crop has a major influence on the entry of water below the soil surface in border-check irrigation. They are the key factors affecting the design of border-checks and need to be determined accurately. However, they change over the course of time, space and growing season, influencing the desing of border-checks.

Field experiment for evaluation of border-check method of irrigation was conducted with wheat crop on sandy loam soils at Water Technology Centre, New Delhi. Four basins of different aspect ratios (width/length) were evaluated. An inflow cutoff criterion for each basin was selected based on cutoff at the completion of advance phase.