In the absence of a cooperative solution to the problem of rights over shared water, water allocation through third party intervention is most commonly used.

An examination of the Lok Sabha elections from 1951 to 2011 reveals that there are large discrepancies between the seat and vote shares of political parties in each of the 15 elected Lok Sabhas in independent India, especially before liberalisation in 1991. In the post-liberalisation period, the extent of disproportional representation has come down, but is still high, even as the extent of electoral competition has increased.

This paper attempts to analyse the pattern and determinants of fund utilisation under the Members of Parliament-Local Area Development Scheme by the Lok Sabha mps. It indicates that there are political business cycles in spending by mps.