This paper complements the other papers in the Lancet Series on midwifery by documenting the experience of low-income and middle-income countries that deployed midwives as one of the core constituents of their strategy to improve maternal and newborn health. It examines the constellation of various diverse health-system strengthening interventions deployed by Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Indonesia, and Morocco, among which the scaling up of the pre-service education of midwives was only one element.