Limnological theory posits that phosphorus (P) limits primary production in freshwater lakes, in part because fixation of atmospheric nitrogen (N2) can compensate for limitations in nitrogen (N) supply to phytoplankton. However, quantitative estimates of the degree to which N2 fixation satisfies planktonic N demand are rare.

The ability of many introduced fish species to thrive in degraded aquatic habitats and their potential to impact on aquatic ecosystem structure and function suggest that introduced fish may represent both a symptom and a cause of decline in river health and the integrity of native aquatic communities.