In this paper the researchers review and synthesize current knowledge about among-population variation in physiological and morphological traits related to plant recruitment. We outline the consequences of that variation for species persistence under climate change, and discuss the implications for conservation, management and restoration.

Increases in annual mean temperature in the course of current climate change are expected to facilitate mass species migration towards higher altitudes and latitudes. However, this migration may be slowed, or even temporarily reversed, by infrequent and unpredictable episodes of low winter temperatures. Iran experienced a severe cold wave in January and February 2008, giving an opportunity to observe the effects on a large number of woody plant species, many growing further north than their natural ranges.