Uranium content in groundwater varies markedly depending upon geological terrain, climate, proximity of uranium deposits, as well as composition of the water. In India, the average reported range of uranium in groundwater is from 0.01 to 19.6 micrograms/litre (ug/L).

The state of Punjab has been left with less than 1% of the area under wetlands. About 30 wetlands, most of which are of natural origin were reported to occur in the state although some have already lost their wetland characteristics.