Indian state of Punjab is increasingly under focus for the increasingly incidence of cancer mortality as well as indiscriminate use of pesticides in agricultural practices. This study investigates cancer mortality, and its correlations with numerous variables, including demographic characteristics, cropping pattern and pesticide residues in soil and water.

The main aim of this study are: to identify, map and determine the extent of vegetation cover and its condition in the coal mined and unmined areas; to find relationship between spatial distribution of vegetation including its condition and mining; and to assess the impact of coal mining on vegetation and to provide evidence for the hypothesis that mining influences the spatial distribution, compo