This study examines India’s low and declining rates of female participation in the labour force, in the context of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 4 and 8. Undertake this analysis by looking at who has been left behind, synergies and trade-offs between SDGs, and global systemic concerns affecting the implementation of the SDGs.

This study explores the key challenges to accessing affordable energy (SDG 7) at the household level in Ghana, and determines the groups of people that are ‘left behind’ using the decision tree analysis. Evidence shows that rural poor households in Ghana have the lowest levels of access to clean energy.