Genomic approaches are revolutionizing the biomedical sciences, providing new ways in which to approach the development of therapeutic practices and the understanding of the causal bases of disease. So, too, do genomics approaches have the potential to transform the way in which ecological studies can be conducted by providing powerful tools in which genotype and phenotype data of diverse “wild” populations can be measured with a never-before-possible level of fine-scale resolution. In this article, we examine the potential for genomics-enabled approaches to aid in understanding the responses of populations to climate change and highlight examples in which these tools have been applied to understand physiological adaptation or migration.