Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), is a major health problem especially in developing countries. Vaccines against typhoid are commonly used by travelers but less so by residents of endemic areas. The researchers used single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing to investigate the population structure of 372 S. Typhi isolated during a typhoid disease burden study and Vi vaccine trial in Kolkata, India. Approximately sixty thousand people were enrolled for fever surveillance for 19 months prior to, and 24 months following, Vi vaccination of one third of the study population (May 2003–December 2006, vaccinations given December 2004).