Challenges, Policy Options, and the way forward
This publication is the outcome of a joint project of UNCTAD and the Common Fund for Commodities (CFC) on landlocked developing countries entitled “Identifying Growth Opportunities and Supporting Measures to Facilitate Investment in Commodity Value Chains in Landlocked Countries”. Landlocked developing countries (LLDCs) face multiple development challenges. On the one hand, they incur higher trade costs due to their geographical remoteness, inadequate transport infrastructure, and poor trade logistics.These problems are compounded by the challenges of multiple border crossings and diverging transport systems and regulations in transit countries. On the other hand, many LLDCs lack crucial productive capacities and are dependent on the exports of primary commodities, rendering them vulnerable to global commodity price shocks.