Improving forest benefits for the poor: learning from community-based forest enterprises in Nepal

The study documents practices of 28 community-based forest enterprises (CBFEs) in Nepal, representing different enterprise models - FUGs, networks, cooperatives, and companies. FUGs are primarily constrained by their limited scale in terms of membership and land area. The formation of intergroups and networks minimizes this limitation. Networks are often constrained from doing group enterprises since they do not have legal identity to transact as a group and this constraint can be overcome by registering as a formal business entity - either as a cooperative or a company. Specific constraints to cooperatives and companies were also identified and the effective practices presented. The study highlighted many constraints to enterprise development targeting to include and benefit the poorest of the poor.