Policy makers should focus on improving access to safely managed wastewater management services. Even though access to improved sanitation facilities has improved, progress in access to safely managed sanitation services is still slow. Globally, 4.5 billion people still lack access to safely managed sanitation. Such inappropriate management of excreta is a main source of pollution of public water bodies, rivers, canals, and ponds, particularly in the urban areas of many Asian developing countries. According to a survey conducted by the Japan International Cooperation Agency, in Jakarta, Indonesia, although the share of residents with access to improved sanitation facilities has reached 87% (85% to septic tanks and 2% to sewerage systems), the rivers in the city are seriously polluted.