Human-nature relations are diverse, multifaceted and often contradictory, especially the relationships with animals. Mishmi people living on the Sino-India border claim tigers to be their brothers and take credit for tiger protection as they observe taboos against hunting tigers. Drawing on this notion of relatedness with tigers, local residents of the Dibang Valley question the governments’ recent plans to declare the Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary into Dibang Tiger Reserve and its scientific surveys of tigers and habitat mapping.

Arunachal Pradesh is rich in biodiversity and has become a hub of scientific explorations leading to the discovery of new taxa species. Of late Arunachal Pradesh has become the focus of national and international wildlife research and conservation, partly due to its status of being in the Eastern Himalayas 'biodiversity hotspot'.

This survey carried out in Itanagar Wildlife Sanctuary, Arunachal Pradesh, focused on the overall patterns and causes of the predator-human conflict. The survey was also aimed to evaluate methods that could be used to assess the status of forest and relative abundance of mammals in a remote and little explored tropical evergreen forest of northeast India.