Bamboo with its multifarious utility plays an important role in food and nutritional security of the tribal population in North-East India besides industrial value. Most of the tree improvement in bamboo is based on phenotypic selection followed by clonal multiplication. Since bamboo flowers rarely sexual propagation based improvement has limited success resulting in less variation.

Arunachal Pradesh has been identified as one of the "Biodiversity Hotspot" areas in the world. The tribes inhabiting the state recognize over 500 species of plants as having medicinal properties. The authors have conducted field trips in different areas of Arunachal Pradesh covering six western districts during March 2004 - October 2005.