Increasing farm labor scarcity and depletion of natural resources such as water are posing a major threat to the sustainability of traditional puddled transplanted rice (PTR) farming in Eastern India. Dry-seeded rice (DSR) or non-puddled transplanted rice (NPTR) could be used as an alternative to PTR. To understand the trade-off with different water management and rice genotypes under non-puddled conditions, a field experiment was conducted during 2014–2015 on a sandy clay loam soil of Bhubaneswar, Odisha.

Plants are exposed to numerous DNA-damaging stresses including the exposure to ultraviolet (UV) component of solar radiation. They employ nucleotide excision repair to remove DNA-bulky adducts and to help eliminate UV-induced DNA lesions, so as to maintain their genome integrity and their fitness. Here, we generated genome-wide single-nucleotide resolution excision repair maps of UV-induced DNA damage in Arabidopsis at different circadian time points.

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Phosphate (P) is an essential macronutrient for plant growth. Roots employ adaptive mechanisms to forage for P in soil. Root hair elongation is particularly important since P is immobile. Here we report that auxin plays a critical role promoting root hair growth in Arabidopsis in response to low external P. Mutants disrupting auxin synthesis (taa1) and transport (aux1) attenuate the low P root hair response. Conversely, targeting AUX1 expression in lateral root cap and epidermal cells rescues this low P response in aux1.

Order of the High Court of Delhi in the matter of Nuziveedu Seeds Ltd. And Others Vs Monsanto Technology LLC And Others dated 11/04/2018 regarding Monsanto's appeal for patents on its BT cotton seeds in India. Monsanto claims that the patent is a biotech invention containing the infusion of Bt gene into the cotton genome. The Bt. bacterium eradicates pests afflicting the cotton plant. Monsanto states that the patent does not cover plants per se, but does cover components that can be termed microbiological processes and microorganisms, thus patentable under the Patents Act.

Anthocyanins are naturally active substances. In this study, anthocyanins from black rice were obtained by membrane filtration and column chromatography separation. Five anthocyanin monomers in black rice extract were identified by HPLC-MS/MS, and the major anthocyanin monomer (cyanidin-3-glucoside, C3G) was purified by preparative HPLC (Pre-HPLC).

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The DREB (dehydration-responsive element binding)-type transcription factors are classified into six subgroups, named A-1 to A-6. The members of DREB A-1 and A-2 subgroups have been reported to be involved in response to various abiotic stresses. However, there were only a few genes belonging to A-3 to A-6 subgroups to be reported. In this study, we cloned a DREB A-4 subgroup gene from maize (Zea mays), ZmDREB4.1, and analyzed its characteristics and functions. ZmDREB4.1 was expressed in roots, stems, and leaves at very low levels. It was not induced by any biotic or abiotic treatment.

Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting world agriculture. Breeding drought-resistant crops is one of the most important challenges for plant biologists. PYR1/PYL/RCARs, which encode the abscisic acid (ABA) receptors, play pivotal roles in ABA signaling, but how these genes function in crop drought response remains largely unknown. Here we identified 13 PYL family members in maize (ZmPYL1-13). Changes in expression of these genes under different stresses indicated that ZmPYLs played important roles in responding to multiple abiotic stresses.

Among nuts, peanut is considered as superfood and has been effective in treating malnutrition across the globe. Peanuts have more protein and 30 essential vitamins and minerals that are effective to combat acute malnutrition. Nutritive value of peanuts reveals that nearly half of the mass of the kernel is made of lipids, whereas protein and carbohydrate constitute nearly one-fifth to one-fourth of the kernel mass.

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Traditional yellow maize though contains high kernel carotenoids, the concentration of provitamin A (proA) is quite low (<2 μg/g), compared to recommended level (15 μg/g). It also possesses poor endosperm protein quality due to low concentration of lysine and tryptophan. Natural variant of crtRB1 (β-carotene hydroxylase) and lcyE (lycopene-ε-cyclase) cause significant enhancement of proA concentration, while recessive allele, opaque2 (o2) enhances the level of these amino acids.

Domesticated species are impacted in unintended ways during domestication and breeding. Changes in the nature and intensity of selection impart genetic drift, reduce diversity, and increase the frequency of deleterious alleles. Such outcomes constrain our ability to expand the cultivation of crops into environments that differ from those under which domestication occurred. We address this need in chickpea, an important pulse legume, by harnessing the diversity of wild crop relatives.

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