Nectar robbing – foraging nectar illegitimately – has negative, neutral, or positive efects on maternal function of plant reproduction and/or on pollinators.

Conservation of biodiversity in managed landscapes is of critical importance due to the rapid degradation and loss of primary habitat in the tropics. Soppinabetta forests are farmer-managed, fragmented evergreen forests of the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot in India. We hypothesized that these forests have immense importance in conservation of epiphytic orchid flora, although management intensity may differentially affect the diversity. Orchid diversity of
the Soppinabetta forests of two degrees of management (sustained Soppinabetta, N = 11; degraded Soppinabetta,