The Montreal Protocol is perhaps the most successful international environmental treaty, responsible for global phaseout of the consumption and production of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs), e.g., chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which do not destroy stratospheric ozone, were considered long-term substitutes for ODSs and are not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. Because most HFCs are potent greenhouse gases (GHGs), they are included in the Kyoto Protocol.

The consumption and emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are projected to increase substantially in the coming decades in response to regulation of ozone depleting gases under the Montreal Protocol. The projected increases result primarily from sustained growth in demand for refrigeration, air-conditioning (AC) and insulating foam products in developing countries assuming no new regulation of HFC consumption or emissions.