Over India, heat waves occur during the summer months of April to June. A gridded daily temperature data set for the period, 1961–2013 has been analyzed to examine the variability and trends in heat waves over India. For identifying heat waves, the Excess Heat Factor (EHF) and 90th percentile of maximum temperatures were used. Over central and northwestern parts of the country, frequency, total duration and maximum duration of heat waves are increasing.

Ground-based measurements of aerosol black carbon (BC), from a high altitude location at Nainital in the central Himalayas (during June 2006 to May 2007), were used to study its temporal variability and impact on the atmospheric radiative forcing. Diurnal variation of BC mass concentration shows single enhanced peak in the late afternoon hour. The peak is rather pronounced in winter months due to shallow and stable boundary layer condition, which is largely associated with low surface temperature.