There is increasing evidence of the importance of multi-use landscapes for the conservation of large carnivores. However, when carnivore ranges overlap with high density of humans, there are often serious conservation challenges. This is especially true in countries like India where loss of peoples’ lives and property to large wildlife are not uncommon. The leopard (Panthera pardus) is a large felid that is widespread in India, often sharing landscapes with high human densities.

Interactions between humans and larger carnivorous mammals have a long history in Asia and Africa. Some adaptable carnivores with wide ranges occur in landscapes with humans and their increasing interface with people sometimes resulting in conflicts. The Valparain plateau inthe Anamalai Hills of the Western Ghats, India has experienced human-leopard confict in the past.

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Human-leopard conflict is a complex issue influenced by political
and social attitudes, the biology of the species, and management
action. Effective management of conflict will have to strike a
balance between minimizing serious conflict (attacks on people)
and the long-term conservation of the leopard species. Although
the leopard is commoner and more resilient than other large cat
species that occur in India, it is poached in the largest numbers to meet the demand of the illegal wildlife trade. The leopard is very adaptable, and can live close to human habitations.

A raging debate continues between social and wildlife scientists in India on the relocation of people from parks to decrease conflicting interests of wildlife conservation and the local people. The goal of such relocations is to enhance the conservation of threatened species like the tiger.

Translocation as a way of dealing with leopard human conflicts is completely wrong