The World Health Organization declared India – among other 10 countries in South East Region – as ‘polio-free’ in 2014. Since then, the Government of India (GoI) has scaled up its initiatives against polio endgame which targets virus eradication and sequential withdrawal of type 2 virus from oral polio vaccine (OPV). However, prior to choosing the switch from trivalent OPV (t-OPV) to bivalent OPV (b-OPV), it was suggested to include inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) in the national immunization schedule to protect vaccine naïve population against type 2 poliovirus.

We read with interest the recent article by Murki, et al. on impact of cephalosporins restriction on incidence of extended spectrum b-lactamases (ESBLs) producing gram negative bacteria. Antibiotics restriction and their cycling are no doubt proven strategies to limit emergence of resistant microbial flora, provided they are employed judiciously.