Although much has been written separately about the direct toxicity of fossil fuel burning emissions and the broad effects of climate change on health [see, e.g., the recent series in
Lancet on energy and health (e.g., Wilkinson et al. 2007)], rarely are they viewed together with a focus on the very young as a susceptible population. In this commentary the author highlight evidence that young children are likely to be at elevated risk of multiple immediate and long-term effects of emissions from fossil fuel combustion.