Indian science is a study in contrasts. With its vast population and rapidly expanding economy, the country has ramped up scientiﬁc production at an impressive rate. India started the twenty-ﬁrst century well behind Russia, France, Italy and Canada in terms of yearly publications and it now leads them all by healthy margins. It is quickly closing in on Japan. Despite those gains, India is not yet a major player in world science. Its publications generate fewer citations on average than do those of other science-focused nations, including other emerging countries such as Brazil and China. Relative to its size, India has very few scientists; many Indian-born researchers leave for positions abroad and very few foreign scientists settle in India.