Natural hazards, civil conflicts, wars and economic crises continue to generate unstable and unsafe conditions, placing immense pressures on communities and local livelihoods. These emergency scenarios often result in people fleeing their homes to
other areas or crossing borders to other countries, thereby creating mass refugee situations. Many of these refugees or internally displaced persons (IDPs) have to remain in refugee camps for extended periods or reside (often illegally) in and around urban areas. Consequently, many people living under the harsh conditions of refugee life will try to improve their food security by establishing some form of agriculture, such as smallscale gardening in refugee camps, in backyards, or on open
spaces outside settlements.