Previous studies demonstrated that the trade in marine turtle products in Viet Nam was threatening local populations. Hawksbill turtles, which comprise most of the illegal trade in Viet Nam, have traditionally been exploited primarily for their shell and there has never been a significant international trade in other products from this species. A market for tortoiseshell derived from the carapace and marginal scales (scutes) of hawksbill turtles has existed for many centuries.