Both Thailand and Vietnam have been identified during the past decade as centres of concern in ivory trade surveys and analyses undertaken for CITES by ETIS (Elephant Trade Information System). Thailand was one of the most important sites of illegal ivory trade at the global level and Vietnam was shown to have a moderate sized and largely unregulated ivory market.

Previous studies demonstrated that the trade in marine turtle products in Viet Nam was threatening local populations. Hawksbill turtles, which comprise most of the illegal trade in Viet Nam, have traditionally been exploited primarily for their shell and there has never been a significant international trade in other products from this species.