Wildlife is the backbone of tourism in Kenya, one of the leading foreign exchange earners for the country. Although wildlife is declining, poverty among communities hosting this wildlife remains endemic. Using field data and secondary literature, this article examines the extent to which the existing wildlife conservation regime must be considered responsible for the associated issues of wildlife decline and community poverty. The author contends that the interests of landowners (both community and private) must be meaningfully incorporated into wildlife conservation planning in order for both impacted communities and wildlife management to be sustainable. The article proposes a rethinking of the wildlife governance philosophy in this respect and sets out pragmatic policy suggestions on how to reform wildlife management for conservation in Kenya built on securing more benefits for the communities that shoulder the burden of conservation.