Addressing vulnerabilities in the supply chain of critical minerals

The global move towards achieving net zero emissions will increase demand for low-carbon and clean technologies such as wind turbines, solar photovoltaics, electric vehicles and energy storage. However, the production of these technologies depends heavily on a few geographically concentrated minerals with limited availability. This report highlights the vulnerabilities in the supply chain of seven minerals: lithium, cobalt, nickel, copper, manganese, graphite and rare earths. It examines mineral criticality assessment frameworks and the global concentration of reserves and mineral processing facilities. The report also explores technologies that could reduce global dependence on these critical minerals. Further, it recommends specific actions to improve supply and reduce demand, tracking the critical mineral value chain and co-development of technologies to explore, mine and process minerals. It also talks about the need to develop mineral stockpiles. The report also emphasises circularity and scaling up alternative technologies to reduce mineral demand.