Analysis of high and low indirect land-use change definitions in European Union renewable fuel policy

The European Union (EU) will continue incentivizing the use of biofuels and other renewable fuels through its recast Renewable Energy Directive for 2021-2030 (RED II). This directive includes a provision to limit and phase out by 2030 the contribution of biofuels produced from feedstocks that are “high indirect land-use change (ILUC) risk.” Feedstock production that is certified as low ILUC risk is exempt from this limit and phase out. The European Commission is required to set criteria to define both high and low ILUC risk biofuels by February, 2019.