Congestion pricing, air pollution, and individual-level behavioural responses

Combatting climate change and poor urban air quality will require a fundamental shift towards greener modes of transport. Policies that incentivise individuals to choose low-emission alternatives to conventional transport will likely play a key role in this transition. This paper examines the example of congestion charging and shows that differentiating driving costs by time of day and vehicle type can help to improve urban air quality, reduce driving and induce adoption of electric vehicles.