Contamination of ground water by sewage

Contamination of drinking water sources by sewage can occur from raw sewage overflow, septic tanks, leaking sewer lines, land application of sludge and partially treated waste water. Sewage itself is a complex mixture and can contain many types of contaminants. The greatest threats posed to water resources arise from contamination by bacteria, nitrates, metals, trace quantities of toxic materials, and salts. Seepage overflow into drinking water sources can cause disease from the ingestion of microorganisms such as E coli, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Hepatitis A, and helminths.