Future air quality in Ha Noi and northern Vietnam

The analysis clearly indicates that even the most stringent emission control measures, if restricted to the Ha Noi area, will not be sufficient to effectively approach Vietnam’s national ambient air quality standards. Even the most ambitious technical emission control measures, if implemented only in the Ha Noi, could reduce ambient levels of PM2.5 in 2030 by only 10%, down to 52 μg/m³ which is more than twice the national ambient air quality standard. Since in such a scenario about 85% of the pollution would be imported from outside the Ha Noi, coordinated action with neighboring provinces is indispensable for any effective improvements of air quality within Ha Noi.