Brazil is a key player in global food supply, ecosystem services, and biodiversity conservation. The country is the globe’s third-largest agricultural producer and its largest net exporter of food (FAO, 2016). Tailored policies in financial services can contribute to modernizing and intensifying agriculture, leading to a more effective management of natural resources. Improvements in the rural credit policy can significantly contribute to the country’s objectives of increasing agricultural production while simultaneously becoming more sustainable. In this report, researchers from Climate Policy Initiative/Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (CPI/PUC-Rio) provide an in-depth analysis of Brazilian rural credit policy and discuss challenges and recent progress in public policy.