This discussion brief provides an overview of the development of green banking practices in China, identifying major policies and practices, performance to date, as well as barriers to further expansion.

Cooperative credit is currently an option in close to 2500 municipalities in Brazil, with an specially large presence in the countryside areas.

India is ranked the fifth most vulnerable nation to the effects of climate change with 2.5-4.5% of its GDP at risk annually. As a result, India has pledged to reduce its carbon intensity by 33-35% by 2030 from its 2005 levels, but to achieve this target, India needs to mobilize a total of $2.5 trillion over 2016-30.

International development partners have recognized Indonesia’s efforts to better meet its climate and environmental goals by pledging their financial support. Indonesia has pledged to reduce 29% emissions by 2030 on its own and 41% with international assistance.

The International Development Finance Club (IDFC) is the leading group of 26 national and regional development banks from all over the world, the majority of which are active in emerging markets.

High-quality adaptation finance tracking identifies gaps and barriers in financing adaptation and resilience solutions globally, drives leaders and stakeholders to invest in adaptation or support increases in finance flows, and supports government agencies in developing policy guidance.

Four years after world leaders negotiated the Paris Climate Agreement, now signed by 195 countries around the world and ratified by 187, national policies and market signals are starting to reflect the urgency both of increasing finance for mitigation of and adaptation to the effects of climate change, and of making all financial flows consisten

In order to meet international climate goals, there is a collective challenge to “shift the trillions” in private capital to help drive the transition to a zero carbon, climate-resilient economy. Public sources of finance will not be able to meet this demand on their own.

Finance is key to achieving Sustainable Development Goal 7 (SDG7), which aims to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all. However, less than one-fourth of the investment required for universal electricity access is taking place.

Clean energy must play a central role in achieving India’s green growth goals. The IFC estimates India will need $450 billion to finance its 2030 clean energy targets (IFC 2017). Assuming a typical 70-30 split of financing via debt vs equity, the debt funding requirements translate to $315 billion through 2030.

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