Surface water monitoring for the mining sector: frameworks for governments

This document reviews water monitoring frameworks for mine water management by governments. Mining activity has the potential to affect many aspects of the environment, and the responsible management of natural resources is key to preserving them for future generations. Water, in particular, is a critical resource for which competing demands may often be the root source of conflict and tension within and between communities, societies, and nations. Governments play the critical role of balancing competing demands for water between mining, agriculture, industry, recreation, and household usage, among others. Within the context of the mining sector, governments are responsible for overseeing water extraction, use, discharge, and quality at the site, watershed, and regional levels.