Sustainable development, uncertainties, and India’s climate policy: pathways towards Nationally Determined Contribution and mid-century strategy

India is making significant strides towards meeting climate commitments and is on course to surpass its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) targets before 2030, said an independent study by the Council on Energy, Environment and Water (CEEW). Non-fossil fuel energy sources, largely due to the rapid growth of solar energy, will garner a share of at least 48 per cent in India's electricity generation capacity by 2030, according to the study, 'Sustainable development, uncertainties, and India's climate policy: Pathways towards Nationally Determined Contribution and mid-century strategy'. However, India will need to bear the cost of integration which will increase as the share of solar and wind increases. Also, the energy sector carbon dioxide emissions intensity of GDP will decline by at least 48 per cent between 2005 and 2030, on the back of significant developments in energy efficiency of end-use sectors such as residential, transportation and industrial sectors.