India has 18% of the world’s population, 1.15 billion people, but access to only 4% of world’s fresh water resources. In the recent past, the dependency of Indian agriculture on ground water resources has increased upto an enormous extent due to several factors including increased demand of food, erratic behavior of monsoon, developmental pressure of various allied sectors etc.

Increase in the global greenhouse gases emission drastically increases the hot weather. Due to mismanagement of waste and natural resources, we have already experienced several warning from global warming and climate change.

It appears that our understanding of the urban ecosystem in our cities will continue to limit our competence in providing environmentally and ecologically sustainable alternatives for urban habitats. One solution, experts argue, is to go vertical, while improving all the other needed services like roads, water and waste disposal.

Presently in India, about 960 million tonnes of solid waste is being generated annually as by-products during industrial, mining, municipal, agricultural and other processes. Of this ∼350 million tonnes are organic wastes from agricultural sources; ∼290 million tonnes are inorganic waste of industrial and mining sectors and ∼4.5 million tonnes are hazardous in nature. Advances in solid waste management resulted in alternative construction materials as a substitute to traditional materials like bricks, blocks, tiles, aggregates, ceramics, cement, lime, soil, timber and paint.