Industrial tree plantations for wood, palm oil and rubber are generating an increasing number of confl icts between companies and local populations. Relying on a wide-ranging literature review, this article analyses the alleged impacts of such plantations, the protesters involved, and the modalities of the confl icts.

Millions of trees in ecologically crucial areas like the Himalayas and Western Ghats have been saved by Chipko and Appiko Movement. These movements also worked for the regeneration of greenery over thousands of acres. The results can be seen in the forests of Jardhar and Piplet in Uttarakhand or the forests near Mendemane and Gubbigadde villages in Karnataka.

Pandurang Hegde is convener of the Appiko movement that protected many forests from the axe in the Western Ghats region. Bharat Dogra spoke to Hegde about efforts to bring environment issues to the forefront of elections:

What is the Appiko movement?

It was 25 years ago this month when villagers in Karnataka undertook an eight km trek to resist massive tree felling at the Kalase forests. In today

Sudhirendar Sharma

A quarter century after the movement emerged in Karnataka