Fertilizer has been the key input in augmenting foodproduction in India. However, fertilizer use in India is skewed, high in a few states having adequate irrigation and dismally low in the NE states. There is also imbalanced use of N, P and K. Deficiency of secondary nutrient sulphur and micronutrient zinc is widespread in the country and boron deficiency is reported from the eastern states. While attempts are being made to increase the fertilizer use in states where levels of application are low, the focus is on developing and promoting secondary and micronutrient fortified/customized fertilizers. A serious thought needs to be given for increasing the use efficiency of nitrogen, which is very low, specially in rice. Therefore, more efficient nitrogen fertilizers using low-cost nitrification inhibitors and coating materials need to be developed and produced. Production and promotion of organic manures also needs due attention.