Hydrogen for heating? Decarbonization options for households in the European Union in 2050

This study compares the cost of several low-greenhouse gas (GHG) or GHG-neutral residential heating technologies in the year 2050: (1) hydrogen boilers, (2) hydrogen fuel cells with an auxiliary hydrogen boiler for cold spells, (3) air-source heat pumps using renewable electricity, and (4) heat pumps with an auxiliary hydrogen boiler for cold spells. The assessment includes low-carbon hydrogen from steam-methane reforming (SMR) using natural gas combined with carbon capture and storage (CCS), or SMR + CCS, and zero-carbon hydrogen produced from renewable electricity using electrolysis.