Livestock and water interactions in mixed crop-livestock farming systems of Sub-Saharan Africa

In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the increasing competition for water between various sectors is aggravated by growing demands for water, climate change and environmental degradation. One of the major consumers of water is livestock keeping, which is an important livelihood strategy for smallholder farmers in Africa. The water consumption for livestock production is currently increasing with the growing demands for livestock products. On the other hand, current low returns from livestock, limit its contribution to livelihoods, threaten environmental health and aggravate local conflicts. The objectives of this review are to: bring together the available knowledge in the various components of the livestock and water sectors; identify promising strategies and interventions to improve the situation using the