This study reviewed the status of natural resources and the driving forces for change, as well as past and ongoing approaches in natural resource management at the watershed scale in Ethiopia.

A special emphasis is given on the gender factor in India as a determinant for unequal distribution of climate change impacts both on household and community. However, a quantitative research on role of gender in climate change and livelihoods in rural India is often missing.

The main purposes of this paper were to assess effects of smallholder farmers access to livelihood capital (e.g. land, livestock and water) on livestock water productivity (LWP) and to evaluate impacts of selected interventions in reducing livestock water demand (per unit of livestock product) and therefore increasing LWP.

In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the increasing competition for water between various sectors is aggravated by growing demands for water, climate change and environmental degradation. One of the major consumers of water is livestock keeping, which is an important livelihood strategy for smallholder farmers in Africa.

This report provides an overview of the range of key livelihoods and production systems in the Blue Nile Basin. It is highlighting their relative dependence on, and vulnerability to, water resources and water-related ecosystem services in the catchments. It also elucidates current water and land related policies and institutions.