Monitoring and evaluation of climate change adaptation: methodological approaches

This paper explores methodological approaches that can be used to monitor and evaluate climate change adaptation initiatives at the projects and programme levels. It examines approaches that have been used in other areas of development practice to see what lessons have been learned that can inform the development of monitoring and evaluation frameworks targeted at adaptation. The paper focuses on three methodological challenges related to monitoring and evaluation that are particularly relevant for adaptation: assessing attribution, establishing baselines and targets, and dealing with long time horizons. The paper also considers the importance of on-going learning in evaluation and the benefit of applying a comprehensive approach to monitoring and evaluation, building on tested practices from participatory methods and social sciences techniques.