RED II and advanced biofuels

The Renewable Energy Directive limits the share of unsustainable crop based biofuels and promotes certain types of biofuels produced from a list of materials defined in its Annex IX. This list is the basis for member states to define the different levels of support to different types of biofuels under their national framework. Whereas the list was intended to include only sustainable waste and residues for biofuels production, it actually includes some unsustainable feedstocks. This briefing assesses the raw materials in the Annex IX, highlights the limitations of the RED sustainability rules and proposes a way forward to ensure that the most sustainable options are supported by national policies and eventually at EU level.