State of environmental clearances in India: procedures, timelines and delays across sectors and states

Trade-off between economic development and environmental protection becomes critical for any country aspiring for high growth for achieving development objectives. Within India, “Green clearances”, an instrument to balance this trade-off, has been subjected to severe criticism for deterring the industrial development process and impacting economic growth. How much truth is there to such perceptions? Which aspects of the process of securing environmental and forest clearance need attention and how can these be addressed? Are there particular states or industries where the challenges are more acute? This study was undertaken to comprehend these contours of development.