State-led alternative mechanisms to acquire, plan, and service land for urbanisation in India

This paper describes and analyses six mechanisms that provide an end-to-end area development approach that enables land acquisition, its planning, and servicing, as well as methods to capture the land’s increased value to help pay for basic infrastructure and social amenities. A case was selected for each type of mechanism that demonstrated this end-to-end area development approach. For each case, the provisions and processes in the legal frameworks of the mechanism were analysed and experiences with the mechanism were presented from secondary sources regarding its impact, strengths, and challenges. The authors did not conduct primary field studies in the six case study areas.