Financial analyses, which consider financial costs and income, have typically informed energy-related decision-making and investment planning. Economic analyses, however, take societal impacts as a whole, and include social, economic and environmental costs and benefits, which are especially critical in energy policymaking and planning.

Population and economic growth, as well as climate change, have pushed water crises to the top of the global agenda. Given the scale of the issues, delivering sustainable water management requires rapid mobilization of funding for water-related improvements and more effective use of existing resources.

Conservation, restoration, and improved management of forests are cost-effective solutions for large-scale reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and removal of carbon from the atmosphere and thus help to hold the global temperature increase to well below 2.0°C or 1.5°C above preindustrial levels.

Cities must ensure universal access to safe, reliable and affordable sanitation so that all urban residents can lead productive, healthy and thriving lives.

Limiting global warming to 2 or 1.5°C requires a virtually decarbonized power sector by 2050.The world is not on track to achieve this. In 2018, while renewable energy (RE) generated ¼ of global power, coal produced 38%, and remained the largest source of electricity generation, producing 30% of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.

Limiting warming in line with the Paris Agreement goals requires deep cuts in transport emissions, even as demand for transport continues to grow. Yet under business as usual, emissions are projected to double.

This paper explores the range of approaches and emerging program designs currently used in the United States to match EV loads and renewable energy, with an emphasis on methods that more closely link the timing and location of the EV demand with renewable energy supply.

This report summarizes the REDD+ experience over the past decade. It draws on research conducted under the Global Comparative Study on REDD+ by the Center for International Forestry Research to take stock of lessons learned from REDD+ implementation to inform future forest-based climate change mitigation activities.

This report lays out 10 “scaling interventions” designed to accelerate and spread adoption of policies and practices to help achieve a 50% reduction in food loss and waste worldwide, in line with the UN Sustainable Development Goal 12.3.

This working paper is a contribution to the FOLU 2019 report, Growing Better: Ten Critical Transitions to Transform Food and Land Use. The paper answers four questions: Why are forests critical to economic development and human well-being? What public sector measures could conserve and restore forests?