The Sundarbans of India and Bangladesh is the only mangrove in the world where tigers still live. The Sundarbans has been under various forms of management for about 2,000 years, and is classified as a Tiger Conservation Landscape of Global Priority. Little is known about the Sundarbans tigers, which are threatened by habitat destruction, prey depletion, and direct tiger loss. This goal of this study was to increase understanding of tiger evolution, population status, and human-tiger conflict.