Transboundary Air Pollution in the Jakarta, Banten, and West Java provinces
Transboundary pollution in the surrounding provinces of Banten and West Java are major contributors to air pollution in Jakarta City. Air pollutant emissions both in Jakarta and in surrounding provinces have been increasing, worsening Jakarta’s air quality. Even with COVID-19, air quality in the capital city did not significantly improve. Satellite images show that the Suralaya power plants in Banten were operating and emitting as usual during COVID restrictions. Winds brought their pollution into Jakarta, which may have contributed to Jakarta’s PM2.5 remaining high despite major reductions in local traffic and urban activity. Transboundary pollution is imposing major health and economic costs on Jakartans. Coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) within 100km of the city are responsible for an estimated 2,500 premature deaths in the Jabodetabek area. The annual cost of transboundary pollution from CFPPs is estimated at IDR 5.1 trillion per year in Jabodetabek.