United Nations framework classification for geothermal energy: pilot applications in the Caribbean, Ethiopia and Indonesia
The lack of global standards, guidelines and codes for geothermal energy project increases the uncertainty with the compatibility and risks associated with geothermal energy development. The joint report from IRENA, the International Geothermal Association (IGA) and the World Bank’s Energy Sector Management Program (ESMAP), supported by United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), employs the United Nations Framework Classification (UNFC) for geothermal energy resources in a pilot programme. The pilot programme classified three geothermal fields according to the three-dimensional UNFC system describing technical feasibility, environmental-socio-economic viability, and degree of confidence on resources. The selected geothermal fields are Mataloko project in Indonesia, the Wotton Waven-Laudat project in the Eastern Caribbean islands, and the Aluto-Langano field in Ethiopia. The report highlights the main challenges and way forward to adapt the broader UNFC specifications and guidelines to geothermal energy resources.